Marine carnivores sit 1.3 trophic levels higher than terrestrial carnivores. Primary productivity, and its availability, is important for mammalian trophic structure and body size.

Examining Predator-prey body size Trophic level and body mass across marine and terrestrial mammals

Evolutionary predictors of mammalian home range size Body mass diet and the environment

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FORAGING ECOLOGY

PREDATOR-PREY RELATIONSHIPS

Predator-prey and trophic relationships changed when mammals returned to the sea – large carnivorous mammals are no longer restricted to taking large prey.

Examining the Prey Mass of Terrestrial and Aquatic Carnivorous Mammals Minimum Maximum and 

Range

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FORAGING ECOLOGY